Acceleration represents the change in motion of an object or portions thereof.
If the speed or direction (velocity) of an object's
motion is changing relative to a non-accelerating frame of reference, then
the object is experiencing acceleration. Also, as long as an object is
rotating about its own central axis, each of its portions is experiencing acceleration
directed inward toward, and perpendicular to, the central axis of
rotation. Finally, if the rate of rotation of an
object is changing, then each of the object's portions of matter is also experiencing acceleration
that is directed along a line that is repeatedly drawn tangent to and on the same plane
as the circular path of each portion's rotation about the object's axis.
There are no occult or non-force causes for an object's acceleration. Specifically, each and every event involving the acceleration of matter is exclusively caused by the presence of an acceleration/Action force. The acceleration/Action force may be an internal action force generated within each component of the object's matter such as gravitation or magnetism, or the acceleration/Action force may be an external (contact) action force impressed against the object's surface by another object(s), or some combination of both internal and external a/A forces.
(See Article IV: The Nature of Force; Article VIII: Universal Gravitation; Article IX: Galileo's Law of Constant Acceleration; Article X: Universal Physics Laws for Force and Motion: and Question 7: regarding gravitation in space.)
acceleration/Action force (abr. a/A force)
acceleration/Reaction force (abr. a/R force)
Centrifugal force is the internal, outward-directed, reaction-to-centripetal-acceleration force that is reactively generated within each accelerating component of an object's matter with this acceleration/Reaction force always being caused by, and always providing the required support for, the internal or external, inward-directed, centripetal, acceleration/Action force that is responsible for acting as the cause for each component's centripetal or inward-directed acceleration away from a straight path of travel repeatedly drawn tangent to, and on the same plane as, the component's curved path of travel.
As a reaction force, the centrifugal a/R force is not responsible for its own cause. That role lies exclusively with the event's centripetal a/A force. Hence it is not logical to expect the reactive centrifugal a/R force to be capable of acting as the cause of any outward-directed event. Instead it always reacts in a benign manner in the outward direction which is opposite to the inward-directed cause by the event's centripetal acceleration/Action force. In the same manner while riding in an accelerating vehicle one does not expect a body's rearward acceleration/Reaction forces to be capable of "causing" any rearward-directed event while the vehicle is forcefully accelerating the body in the forward direction. As in all accelerational events, the a/R forces present merely fill a supporting role as they provide the required equal and opposite support for the event's a/A force cause.
Accordingly, there exists no possibility for the
existence of "centrifugal acceleration" for no outward-directed action force
exists to cause such an impossible event. On a final note, any science
author who makes the statement: "Centrifugal force is fictitious." simply
doesn't understand the physics of accelerational events. One would be well
advised to cast a broad net of doubt upon all the author's statements that
(See Article XI: Reaction Forces: Question 3: Question 4: Question 5)
Force is a push or a pull that is either impressed externally against, or
generated internally within, one or more components of an objectís matter.
Force is the exclusive cause of every accelerational event. No form of energy can cause the activity of acceleration of matter without first begin converted by one technique or another into an acceleration/Action force. The sudden application of an acceleration/Action force is always the cause of the immediate acceleration of an object according to the dictates of Isaac Newton's formula, Force = mass * acceleration. There exists no fabled "resistance" to the acceleration/Action force from the object's matter. In truth, the object's acceleration/Reaction force, the only reaction force to exist in nature, automatically provides equal and opposite support for the object's acceleration/Action force, which action force represents its cause, while serving in no manner to resist, reduce or cancel the ongoing activity of the object's acceleration.
There are four types for force. Type 1 and Type 2 are monopole internal
forces that act or react in one direction within each component of an object's
matter. Type 3 and Type 4 forces are bipole external forces that act and react in
opposite directions as mutual contact forces between objects. In
Article IV: The Nature of Force,
consideration is given to the origination and termination of force as well as
how the stacking of forces effect occurs in every event where internal and
external forces are opposed.
Gravitation is the internal force generated separately within each component of an object's matter due to an imbalance in the component's operation caused by its reception of small portions of expanding energy fronts previously emitted at the speed of light energy by and from other components of matter located both near and far.
The forces of gravitation, being generated within the myriad of an object's components may collectively stack up or combine in a linear fashion to produce the external force of the object's weight against Earth. Or, each component of the object's matter may interface directly with an opposing internal force such as the acceleration/Reaction force resulting in no stacking-of-forces through the object in any particular direction. Instead the object will enjoy the balanced state of internal equilibrium during acceleration within a friction-free environment. Just such an example is the Space Shuttle while in orbit of Earth. Here the outward-directed internal a/R forces that react in support of the Shuttle's inward acceleration away from an imaginary tangential straight-line path are a perfect match for the inward-directed internal gravitational action forces that are the cause of the Shuttle's inward-directed acceleration. If the forward speed of the Shuttle is increased, the inward force of Earth gravitation being generated within each component of the Shuttle's matter will become insufficient to maintain the Shuttle's current orbital radius. Instead, a brief increase in forward speed for the Shuttle will automatically result in a temporary increase in the Shuttle's orbital radius.
(It should be noted here that the imaginary concept of "curved space" around Earth is an unsuitable explanation for the Shuttle's orbit. This concept holds that gravitation is not a force and further that the orbiting Space Shuttle is really traveling in a straight, non-accelerative manner along a "curved path" through "curved space". If this were so, then there would be no speed requirement for the Shuttle's orbit of Earth. An increase or decrease in the Shuttle's speed along this "straight-path through the supposed "curved space" around Earth would not cause any change to occur to the Shuttle's orbital radius, which we know is definitely not the case. Thus, this "curve space" theory of gravitation is a theory without merit. See the definitions for space and time plus read Question 13.)
"Infinity", a term often used in the mathematics of physics,
means simply "without end or limit". While the predictions of
calculations may lead one to consider that it is possible for something to
become "infinite", logic tells us otherwise. To begin with,
recognize that it
is not possible to count one's way to "infinity". Equally impossible is
the application of any mathematical operation to a supposedly
"infinite" quantity. Divide an
"infinite" quantity in half and what do you have? Will each half not
continue to be "infinite"? Of course, a division of any true
quantity in half will yield two ends at the point of division and since an "infinite" quantity is
then for this reason alone, it must not be possible to divide an "infinite"
quantity. Also the term "infinite quantity"
implies the presence of something to which units of measure apply. What then if you
subtract one of these units of measure from the "infinite"
quantity? Are you left with a quantity that is "infinite" -
1? Will such a reduced "infinite" quantity of something no longer be
"infinite"? If so then by adding back the quantity removed
will the something's "infinite" nature be restored? If not,
then maybe the "infinite" something remains "infinite"
no matter how large the quantity removed. Perhaps even the quantity
removed, however small, is itself "infinite". These
that an "infinite" something not only cannot be divided but also cannot contain measurable units of
Thus it becomes logical to conclude that if something can be divided into measurable units then it is not possible for this something to ever be large enough to be "infinite". Thus we are left with only nothing to be "infinite" since only nothing will refuse to succumb to being divided into measurable units. Conclusion? "Infinity" = nothing. Since only nothing can be infinite, then mathematical operations that go so far as to predict that given the right conditions, something that contains measurable units can become "infinite", are mathematical operations that cross the line separating the logical from the illogical, the possible from the impossible, and the real from the unreal. To follow such predictions and those who make them is to become lost from the age-old quest to understand the physical reality of this Universe.
Rest-motion is an object's default state of motion where acceleration is absent. A non-accelerating observer will see an object in rest-motion as either being at rest or moving with a uniform motion in a straight line depending upon the rest-motion of the observer. The opposite to the inactive default causeless state of rest-motion is the active, forcefully caused state of acceleration.
(See Article II: The
Equality of Rest and Uniform Motion; Article IX:
Galileo's Law of Constant Acceleration; and Article X:
Universal Physics Rules for Force and Motion.)
Space is the room available for matter to occupy and into which energy emission rings may expand. Any discussion regarding space should begin with a discussion regarding the concept of nothing. Nothing is the absence of something. Since a thing is an object of matter, however small, then nothing or no-thing is the absence of something or some-thing which means that where nothing is concerned, all objects of matter and their components are absent. This state represents the best way to begin thinking about space. Space, by itself, is nothing but empty room.
(See Question 7: Curved Space?)
state of motion
An object's state of motion represents its level of
accelerational activity. There are but two states of motion possible for an
object. The first state is rest-motion which is the default state of
motion where all acceleration is
absent for the object or portions thereof.
The second state of motion is acceleration where
changes are occurring to the speed, direction, and/or rate of rotation of the
object or portions thereof. Whenever acceleration is occurring to the
object, it is being caused by a net acceleration/Action force of one type or
another. This net a/A force causes and is equally supported by the object's mutual
acceleration/Reaction force. When no net acceleration/Action force is
present, the object just inactively waits in causeless default state of rest-motion for the arrival of the next net
acceleration/Action force. Nothing is required to be present to "cause" the object
to wait. It simply waits in rest-motion due solely to the absence
of a net acceleration/Action force.
(See Article IV: The Nature of Force; and Article XI: Reaction Forces)
(February 15, 2001)
The definition for time is coming soon, after a reasonably short period of elapsed time. Curious, is it not, that we understand exactly what it means to have to wait for the passage of a set period of elapsed time... yet we claim to be quite puzzled by the nature of time, itself. The true definition of time is not the complex, conflicting, multi-headed definition currently accepted within the sciences. Instead the definition of time is but one definition that is simple, clear, absolute, real, and "timeless". The hard part will be in our getting used to this true definition for it really sets the parking brake on the activity of our imaginations.
(May 5, 2001)
We all exist in the same Universal Present. The Universal Present is in constant motion from one present moment to the next present moment. This motion is time.
Time is the motion of the Universal Present.
Think of the Universal Present as the time container for every object, event and emission that exists in this Universe. To continue to exist in the Universal Present, it is a requirement that every such object, event or emission proceed toward the future at a rate identical to the Universal Rate. Continued existence in the Universal Present of any object, event or emission is proof that the Universal Rate of Time is being maintained by all in existence.
(See Article VII: The Nature of Time)
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